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Posts Tagged ‘TB Alliance’

Today, The Lancet launched an impressive new series of articles on the global tuberculosis epidemic, which claims 1.8 million lives every year. The Lancet articles note that TB is a leading cause of death in people in the most economically productive age-groups. The series highlights scale up of treatment and diagnoses, drug-resistant TB, and HIV/TB co-infection, as well as the huge funding gap for TB control and research and development, with many countries struggling to deliver basic diagnostic and treatment services.

The authors of one lead article conclude: “Acceleration of the present decline towards TB elimination will need invigorated actions in four broad areas: continued scale-up of early diagnosis and proper treatment in line with the Stop TB Strategy; development and enforcement of bold health-system policies; establishment of links with the  broader development agenda; and promotion and intensification of research.”

With the unveiling of this series, we spoke today with Zhenkun Ma, Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer for the TB Alliance, who authored this article focused on TB drug development and the promise of new medicines to greatly improve TB treatment.

Q: You point to the results of a modeling study that suggests the combination of a 2-month treatment regimen that cures 95% of MDR tuberculosis, a better TB diagnostic tool, and a joint pre-exposure and post-exposure TB vaccine could potentially reduce the incidence of this disease by 71% by 2050. But that seems like a very tall order. How realistic is it that we can achieve those goals and what will it take to get there?

A: I think it’s very feasible. We have a very strong pipeline. On the drugs front, the goal of achieving a 95 percent cure rate for drug-resistant TB with new drugs is very doable. Right now, there are 10 drugs in clinical development, and the majority—six new drugs—belong to novel drug classes with new modes of action, new mechanisms. Bacterium has never seen these compounds before. They work differently from old drugs and are able to overcome drug-resistant forms of TB.

Four of the drugs in the pipeline are currently being used to treat other bacterial infections. We are in the process of figuring out how to best use these to treat TB. Because of these developments, I think it’s very feasible to achieve significant reductions in TB incidence.

Q: One problem you highlight is inadequate clinical trial capacity to test new regimens for TB treatment. Can you elaborate on that? Why isn’t there enough capacity, how inadequate is it, and what will it take to get to full capacity?

A: TB has its worst impact on developing countries. The places you have TB patients, generally, do not have the capacity to conduct modern clinical trials. Most parts of Africa, for example, simply don’t have the laboratory capacity required to support registration trials. And the places we are able to conduct registration trials, you simply don’t have enough patients with TB. So that’s the challenge and the disconnect. Funding is really the key to support capacity building and clinical capacity strengthening.

Q: What research is currently underway to improve pediatric treatment of TB?

A: Pediatric TB has largely been ignored. It’s a major challenge because it’s hard to do. We don’t have very good diagnostic tools. It will take a lot of research work to figure out how best to detect TB and monitor the efficacy of treatments in children. However, we are committed to developing drugs that can be used for all patient populations.

Q: The funding shortfall for TB research is huge. It has long been a neglected disease. What do you think it will take to change that?

A: Clearly the funding gap is huge. MSF recently reported there is a 75 percent gap in the funds needed for TB research and development. A lot of people think TB is simply not a problem anymore. The Lancet articles are a great opportunity to point out that TB is still a devastating global problem, with 2 million people dying from TB and more than 9 million new cases of TB occurring each year. This is really a massive global problem and requires people to pay more attention and invest more resources. We need all the stakeholders to allocate more resources to support TB drug development.

For more info, here’s a link to the Lancet press office and below is the Lancet press release on the Series, which has descriptions and links for each article: (more…)

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This afternoon, Dr. Mel Spigelman, president and CEO of the Global Alliance for TB Drug Development, and other leading TB advocates will join with FDA Commissioner Margaret Hamburg to launch a new initiative designed to accelerate the development and approval of life-saving new treatments for tuberculosis. There are now at least 9 promising new TB drugs in the pipeline. This project aims to shave decades off the time it takes to bring dramatically improved TB treatments to the millions of patients who die unnecessarily from TB.  These drugs are desperately needed tools in the battle against TB, an epidemic that claims 1.8 million lives each year.  We spoke with Dr. Spigelman about the implications of this new initiative, called the Critical Path to TB Drug Regimens (CPTR).

Dr. Mel Spigelman

Q: I know there are 9 new TB drugs in the pipeline and this initiative will allow them to be tested together and earlier in development. Can you tell me exactly how this process will work—what steps will be skipped and where and how will these drugs be tested?

Dr. Spigelman: What’s important to realize is that the CPTR is not about skipping steps, but rather streamlining processes and creating more efficient pathways to accomplish one goal—to dramatically speed the time it takes to bring new TB drug regimens to patients.

That’s important because developing new drug regimens is an extremely long process. Traditionally, new regimens are developed by successively substituting one new drug at a time into the existing regimen. Each substitution usually takes a minimum of 6 to 8 years.  Therefore, for a completely new regimen, substituting one drug at a time, it could take at least a quarter of a century. That’s too long to wait, when nearly 2 million patients die each year from TB.

 CPTR allows combination testing of new–as well as existing–drugs at once, reducing the time it takes to develop novel regimens to as little as 6 to 8  years. The CPTR has put together a regulatory science consortium, led by the Critical Path Institute, which will play a key role in validating the regulatory science that will back this process.

Preclinically, compounds will undergo the same battery of tests an individual drug is subjected to, as well as additional combination tests that will generate information that to be used to identify which drug combinations display the most promise. The fastest-acting and most effective combinations will move toward the clinic.

Q: Ever since the first human trials of the first-ever drug used to treat TB, streptomycin, in 1947, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has proven its ability to dodge our medical weaponry by developing resistance to these drugs. There’s a concern that if we continue to introduce new TB drugs one at a time, we will end up repeating history. What, if anything, does this project do to address those concerns?

Dr. Spigelman: You’re right–developing drugs one by one does increase the risk that resistance to therapies will develop. Under the conventional paradigm, by the time a second new drug is introduced into a regimen, resistance could have begun to mount against the first drug.

CPTR will fight the development of resistance in two important ways. First, CPTR regimens will have the potential to markedly shorten the duration of treatment needed to cure TB. This, in and of itself, is absolutely key to turning off the faucet of new drug-resistant cases. Shorter and simpler treatment means better adherence, which cuts down on the development of resistance.

Second, introducing multiple novel compounds at one time means that fewer elements of the regimen are accompanied by pre-existing, widespread resistance.   

Q: Why did it take so long to streamline the regulatory process for TB drug approval? Hasn’t the FDA been doing with this with HIV drug candidates for years?

Dr. Spigelman: To make dramatic progress in fighting the TB epidemic, a novel TB regimen is needed. However, as recently as 10 years ago — prior to the inception of the TB Alliance — there were no TB drug candidates under development. In fact, even as recent as four or five years ago, the global TB drug portfolio just wasn’t mature enough to realistically conceive of implementing a CPTR approach to TB drug development. There just weren’t enough drugs. 

Now, however, we have multiple new drugs in clinical development, which makes pursuing the CPTR initiative practical and feasible. There is also much greater industry commitment to new TB drugs than there has been in decades. There’s widespread recognition that to make an impact, companies, among a wide variety of constituencies, must work together if they want to impact the TB epidemic. The nexus of these commitments has enabled CPTR.  

The FDA has helped streamline the process of developing and registering HIV drugs in the past, but not in the way the CPTR initiative will function. This is in many ways a groundbreaking endeavor.  (more…)

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