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Posts Tagged ‘Africa’

Here at the Microbicides 2010 conference in Pittsburgh I got a chance to talk with Dr. Gita Ramjee, one of the top researchers in the field, about the most exciting scientific challenges being discussed at the meeting.  Dr Ramjee is the Director of the HIV Prevention Research Unit at the South African Medical Research Council.  She also explains in the interview why development of an effective microbicide for rectal use is so crucial, for both men and women in Africa, in particular given higher than expected rates of reported anal sex in several countries, as well as in many other regions of the world including the United States.

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This post is by the Global Center’s Rabita Aziz.
 
Dr. Luis Sambo, the World Health Organization’s Regional Director for Africa, spoke to global health professionals and African diplomats today at an event sponsored by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), about progress made toward achieving goals in the Abuja Declarations made roughly a decade ago.
 
The first Declaration, signed in 2000 by many African heads of state,  made commitments to reduce prevalence and consequently mortality from malaria by 50 percent by 2010.  In a second Abuja Declaration, signed in April 2001, heads of states declared HIV/AIDS to be a matter of emergency.
 
African leaders resolved to place the fight against HIV/AIDS at the forefront of their respective national development plans, as well as consolidate the foundations for the prevention and control of the disease through a comprehensive, multisectoral strategy involving all development sectors of government.  The leaders pledged to take more responsibility for the HIV/AIDS response, while also calling for an increase of external resources. 
 
In addition, the Abuja Declaration removed all taxes, tariffs, and other economic barriers to access funding for HIV/AIDS related activities.  Leaders also pledged to allocate 15 percent of their annual budgets to the improvement of health sectors.  The Declaration called for improving the availability of medical products and technologies, as well as supporting the development of vaccines.
 
Sambo said not all of these goals have been achieved.  For example, African nations on average allocate 6 percent of their budget to health sectors, instead of the pledged 15 percent, due in part to budget deficits.
 
But he also noted many successes in the fight against HIV.  Since the Declaration, there has been an improvement in diagnostics, care and support, and prevention, and dramatically higher coverage of antiretroviral therapy. In 2002, only 2 percent of patients in need of treatment were receiving it; in 2008, that number jumped to 44 percent.  HIV prevalence has dropped from 5.8 percent to 5.2 percent, and the rate of new infections has declined by 25 percent in that timeframe.  And since 2004, the annual number of HIV-related deaths has fallen by 18 percent.
 
Sambo said much of these successes were achieved thanks to external funding mechanisms, such as PEPFAR and the Global Fund.  He stressed that Global Fund and PEPFAR funds made significant contributions to change lives and provide hope.  Sambo also expressed high hopes for President Obama’s new Global Health Initiative, and expects it to be a powerful initiative that will bring many positive results.
 
Despite these achievements, Sambo warned that not enough is being done and gaps in funding are allowing prevalence and mortality numbers to remain high.  For every HIV patient being treated, three more are newly infected, he noted.  Fifty- five percent of HIV infected pregnant women are not receiving ART prophylaxis, while 58 percent of all infected people have no access to ARV treatment.  Life expectancy in the continent has dramatically shortened, with an average life expectancy of at least 60 years in the 1990s, to less than 50 years in 2010. 
 
Sambo also stressed that HIV-TB co-infection continues to be an emerging problem, as the number of TB cases continues to increase and remains the leading cause of death among HIV patients.  The emergence of MDR- and XDR-TB is making the HIV response even more difficult.  Sambo expressed that the failure of integrating HIV and TB services has caused many of the difficulties, and that it’s difficult to achieve integration when two-thirds of funding needs for HIV-TB co-infection are unmet.
 
Health programs, he said, are receiving half of the funding needed for the HIV response.  In total, Africa requires $12 billion to deal with the HIV/AIDS crisis, but is receiving $6 billion.  He said $2 billion is required for the TB response, but $1 billion is available.  In addition, he said $10 billion is needed for health systems strengthening, but African nations have $5 billion at their disposal.
 
But Sambo said funding wasn’t the only issue.  He said African nations need to take on more responsibilities and ownership of programs, and broaden their health policies to go beyond disease control.  In particular, he said, broader health determinants need to be addressed, such as poverty, lack of food security, lack of education, and environmental degradation.

He cited a need for increased support for maternal and child health, as well as a larger focus on women’s and girl’s development.  Nations also need to develop capacity for health research and information systems.  Most importantly, leaders need to make a renewed commitment to fighting the HIV epidemic, as well as use funds more efficiently.

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This posting is by Rabita Aziz, Program Associate at the IDSA/HIVMA Global Center

The new report by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) Commission on Smart Global Health Policy  calls for the U.S. to double contributions to better maternal and child health, to $2 billion a year.  Such investments should be focused on a few core countries in Africa and South Asia where there is a clear need, where partner governments are willingly engaged, and where concrete health gains can be made along with increasing a country’s capacities.

The report demonstrates that maternal mortality is a profound problem by offering this data: a woman’s risk of dying in pregnancy or childbirth is 1 in 7,300 in the industrialized world, 1 in 120 in Asia, and 1 in 22 in sub-Saharan Africa.  Although there are clear preventative solutions in many of these cases, accessing such measures is problematic.

The report states that improving maternal mortality requires an interlinked set of interventions that are supported and sustained over time, including heightened efforts to improve local transport.  In addition to addressing maternal mortality, it is imperative that efforts to end child and infant mortality are undertaken.  The report states that it is estimated that a package of 16 simple and cost-effective measures could prevent nearly 3 million of the estimated 4 million deaths in the first month of life.  Additionally, expanding access to immunizations can save the lives of 2 million children under the age of five.

Although the report clearly states that maintaining America’s commitment to fighting against HIV/AIDS is one element in a global health strategy, it fails to integrate this commitment within the framework of strengthening maternal and child health.

Globally, HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age.  When half of the 31.3 million people living with HIV worldwide are women, and 98 percent of them reside in developing countries, the importance of envisioning HIV/AIDS as a maternal and child health issue is clear.  Integrating HIV/AIDS efforts within efforts to improve maternal and child health, and scaling them up, is key to a rights-based approach to health.

Among pregnant women in Johannesburg, South Africa’s most populous city, HIV is the main cause of death, according to a five-year study of maternal mortality at one of the city’s largest public hospitals

It is also important to recognize that HIV-negative children born to HIV-positive mothers still face high mortality risks as long as their mothers are not receiving treatment.   A Ugandan study found that not only is there a 95% reduction in mortality among HIV infected adults after 16 weeks of antiretroviral treatment, but there is an 81% reduction in mortality in their uninfected children younger than 10, and an estimated 93% reduction in orphan hood.[1]

Unfortunately, there is no mention in the report of undertaking initiatives to reduce the prevalence of HIV/AIDS among women and ensure access to treatment as a key maternal health strategy, even though it is clear that taking such measures will greatly strengthen families and communities.  Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV is imperative, as well as ensuring access to ongoing treatment for the mother.


[1] Mermin et al (2008) Mortality in HIV-infected Ugandan adults receiving antiretroviral treatment and survival of their HIV-uninfected children: a prospective cohort study Lancet 371: 752-759.

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The Center for Strategic and International Studies yesterday unveiled  a new “must-read” report for global health advocates, “Smart Global Health Policy.” While a panel at the Congressionally-chartered Institute of Medicine, made up primarily of scientists, issued recommendations on US global health policy last year, the CSIS panel is the first to involve high-level business leaders and sitting members of Congress.

The report drew on observations made during a study trip to Kenya, but it is unclear if consultation in developing countries went beyond that, for instance to include global representatives of affected communities and of developing country civil society, such as those on the boards of UNITAID and the Global Fund.

The report and the webcast of the launch event are available online.  Here are a few highlights:

The report makes a strong case that it is in the interest of the United States to continue and increase  our investment in global health and that the issue should matter to all Americans. It calls for keeping funding for AIDS, TB and malaria on a “consistent trajectory,” doubling spending on maternal and child health to $2 billion a year, forging a collaborative response to emerging heath threats, establishing strong coordination of global health policy across US agencies, and increasing support for multilateral efforts.

In 2009 there was a massive drop off in the expansion of treatment by US programs, and the report notes that AIDS advocates are “particularly anxious” at the slowing growth rate, a stalling that could also impact health systems.  The report suggests that funding is a concern for treatment advocates, yet, in fact, HIV prevention advocates have also been quite alarmed at the essentially flatline funding picture.

Despite World TB Day (March 24) being just a few days away, no mention is made in the report of immediate tuberculosis funding concerns, lowered TB targets in the 6-year Global Health Initiative or USAID’s role in responding to TB.  Instead, the report includes TB within a much longer timeframe, stating that “we can accomplish great things in the next 15 years:  We can cut the rate of new HIV infections by two thirds, end the threat of drug-resistant tuberculosis, and eliminate malaria deaths.”

In terms of overall funding, the report calls for less spending in the near term than either the IOM panel or the Global Health Initiative coalition did; instead, the CSIS document endorses the President’s proposed funding of $63 billion by 2014.  While the IOM called for specific increased funding levels on AIDS, TB and malaria consistent with Lantos-Hyde, the CSIS report does not delve into specific funding levels, with the exception of maternal and child health.  Instead, taking the long view, it calls for $25 billion in annual spending by 2025.

One exciting aspect of the CSIS report is that it endorses innovative financing as a means of raising funds for global health.  The report does not touch on the concept of innovative taxation for health, recently championed by maternal health advocates at Family Care International and many other groups. However, it identifies some specific mechanisms, such as borrowing the money needed through an international finance facility, and it urges the US National Security Council to review the most promising ideas on innovative financing and develop a US position.

Admiral William J. Fallon kicked off the launch event, stating that global health is a “bipartisan enterprise… which can unite US citizens in collective action.”  He stated the importance of maintaining forward momentum, noting that “we do not want to coast or slide backward.”  Helene Gayle said that global health efforts are showcasing the American spirit of generosity and said “we need forward momentum even in a period of constrained resources.”

Jack Lew, the top State Department official developing the US Global Health Initiative, spoke about the Administration’s goals in developing the new strategy. He said that the Administration’s aim was to “challenge a way of doing business by moving beyond a primary focus on disease treatment.”  He said the goal was “not to do harm to existing programs.”

Advocates for effective HIV prevention have felt stymied in recent weeks by the lack of specific HIV/AIDS guidances from the Administration to the field and have noted that Kenya’s Partnership Framework with the US even appears to rule out family planning integration.  Family planning came up at the event when Dr. Michael Merson, of Duke University, criticized the Canadian government’s rejection of the inclusion of family planning as a part of its maternal health initiative.

But Lew’s presentation did not delve into details — and there was no opportunity at the event for questions from the floor.  He stated that program integration was crucial to meet the needs of women, and he commented on the importance of having family planning and HIV/AIDS services in one location.

The report is particularly noteworthy for the very strong focus on measurement for accountability in delivering services. Business leaders at the event decried the reporting burden on health programs and, along with Dr. Merson, called for a common set of impact indicators.

Rajeev Venkayya, Director of Global Health Delivery at the Bill and Gates Melinda Foundation, said that measurement matters because it allows us to maximize efficiency and stretch dollars while identifying what works and what doesn’t.  In addition, measurement allows us to hold accountable institutions, organizations, and even individuals, which in turn allows for greater project improvement.  Exxon Mobil Chairman and CEO Rex Tillerson agreed, and cited a Lancet article which said that evaluation must be a top priority for global health.

Robert Rubin, former US Treasury Secretary and former head of Citigroup and Goldman Sachs, told the audience that global health leaders “face wrenching choices” as a result of US fiscal problems.  He asked two members of Congress, Rep. Keith Ellison and Senator Jeanne Shaheen, whether global health is an issue that can “break through the mire” on Capitol Hill.

Senator Shaheen said that the issue can succeed, but it is crucial to explain to Americans that international affairs spending is only a tiny fraction of the US budget, much less than people realize.   She said it was cheaper to spend on global health than on war, noting Bill Clinton’s recent statement about the appreciation of PEPFAR expressed by Muslim residents of Tanzania.  She also said the current committee structure in Congress is an impediment and endorsed the recommendation included in the report for a consultative body that would work across committees.

Congressman Ellison also voiced strong support for greater US action on global health, stating that “infectious diseases know no borders.”  He said that while in Kenya, he made good progress in persuading Kenyan leaders of the necessity of stepping up their own contributions.  He suggested that by reducing US spending on outmoded weapons systems the US could improve its budget outlook and make global health spending easier.

Gayle Smith, the NSC official leading the development of the US Global health Initiative, was the concluding speaker at the event. She said global health was a bipartisan issue and that in fact President Obama specifically directed that the achievements of the previous Republican Administration be recognized.  She praised the CSIS report, and said that its ideas were remarkably congruent with those of the Administration.

She said the Administration’s commitment to fighting global HIV/AIDS was “absolute” and, she added, “this will grow over the life of the initiative.” She said the Administration’s plans for the Global Health Initiative “include an ambitions set of targets in terms of outcomes.”

She did not respond to concerns submitted to the Administration by the Global Center, TAG, the Global Health Council, and the GHI Working Group that the Administration’s targets regarding tuberculosis contradict a directive from Congress approved in 2008 as a part of Lantos-Hyde.  In fact, it was surprising that the event unfolded without  reference  to the consultative process which numerous NGOs have engaged in regarding the US Global Health Initiative or to the detailed analyses these groups have submitted to the Administration.

There were a range of reactions from health NGOs to the event.  Eric Friedman at Physicians for Human Rights noted the “surprisingly little attention in the report to human resources for health and health systems, and no mention of including civil society in the development of country compacts.” He praised the report for “proposing that the Administration develop a long-term, 15-year framework for making progress in and committing the United States to improving global health, a good idea so long as it does not set the stage for underambition, and is flexible to respond to changes in the years ahead. ” He also would have liked to see “a recommendation that the United States should deliberately integrate a right to health approach throughout U.S. global health programs, including the consistent focus on equality, accountability, and participation that this entails.”

Matt Kavanagh at Health GAP praised what he heard from the report, which included an emphasis on keeping up the fight against HIV/AIDS, especially important for the health of African women. But he noted with concern that “some of the Administration comments that seemed to favor prioritizing ‘cheap’ interventions that do not work in the long term, such as single dose nevirapine instead of treatment for HIV positive mothers, an approach abandoned long ago as ineffective in wealthy nations.”

The American Medical Students Association’s Farheen A. Qurashi said that the report “takes a bold, but necessary, approach to U.S. global health planning by insisting upon a 15-year comprehensive plan.”  She said, “Unfortunately, the Commission’s report does not appear to specify the need for scaling-up of PEPFAR investments versus the dangers of flat-funding, and instead uses language that suggests that a continuation of current levels of funding without annual growth is sufficient.”

On health systems, she said that “though integration and health systems strengthening is mentioned in general terms, and the need for training and retention of health care workers is noted, there is no detailed analysis of the measures, funding, and support necessary to establish and retain adequate numbers of health professionals and other health care workers.”

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Evaristo Marowa, UNAIDS Country Coordinator for Botswana, said today that major opportunities to prevent HIV, and save billions of dollars in the long run, will be missed if the US and the international community fail to increase AIDS funding for Botswana and other countries in southern and eastern Africa. 

He made his comments in a presentation at the Global Health Council, where he also provided a powerpoint:  Botswana HIV epi and responses.  Dr. Marowa’s presentation comes as global AIDS advocates anxiously await next week’s release of President Obama’s budget proposal.  His urgent warning about the danger of donors adopting a flat or near-flat funding approach provided an interesting counterpoint to last week’s CSIS publication on HIV prevention, which did not mention the need to increase funding in its recommendations to the US government.

Dr. Marowa is a physician with a specialty in dermatology and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). He trained at Universities in Harare, Kinshasa, Liverpool and London.  Since September 2006, he has been the UNAIDS country coordinator in Botswana, and previously he worked in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Bangladesh.

HIV prevalence in Botswana has fallen in recent years from 38% to 24%, with declines seen particularly in young people. The country has had strong leadership on the issue at the highest levels, which Marowa called “visionary and committed.” Prevention of mother-to-child transmission has been “an astounding success,” with a transmission rate of about 4%.  A large proportion of people have been tested for HIV, about 60 to 70%, and access to antiretroviral medications is also high at about 85%.  PEPFAR has been a major support to these programs, providing about $90 million a year.

However, he said that a high degree of internal mobility in the population, multiple concurrent partnerships, low rates of male circumcision, low condom use, and high rates of gender-based violence, which form the basis for an ongoing HIV/AIDS crisis.  Marowa also cited alcohol abuse as a contributing factor, an issue on which he said the current president was very active. (more…)

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Dr. Luis Sambo, the WHO’s regional director for Africa, sought to draw attention this week to the growing threat of drug-resistant strains of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria on the continent, calling for aggressive action “before the situation gets out of hand.”

Sambo made his comments during the 59th session of the WHO regional committee meeting in Kigali, with Rwanda getting some praise for progress in improving its health services. But more broadly, Sambo said African countries needed to respond forcefully to the emergence of virulent new strains of TB and other deadly diseases. He called for a nine-point plan that includes developing human resources, strengthening lab capacity, and bolstering drug supply chains, among other steps.

All those concepts go to the very core of health-system strengthening, a fresh point of focus in the US, where the Obama Administration is reshaping US global health priorities. On that front, there was this very interesting blog post on the Center for Strategic and International Studies’ website today about broader benefits of the US global AIDS program in Kenya to that country’s health system. (more…)

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How could the world dramatically lower the incidence of tuberculosis and save millions of lives? 

An effective TB vaccine would revolutionize the response to TB, which kills about 5000 people each day, and eliminate the need for lengthy and often difficult drug treatment.   

An effective vaccine would be of tremendous benefit all over the world, including in the United States, where there were 13,299 cases of active TB reported in 2007 and about 11 million people with latent TB. 

Of course, there’s no question that much more can be done to prevent TB using existing methods, notably the Three I’s.  But, imagine what an effective vaccine could do.  Vaccination of newborns with a successful TB vaccine could decrease global TB incidence by 39 percent to 52 percent by 2050, and mass vaccination could result in a nearly 80 percent decrease of TB by 2050, according to a recent estimate. 

What’s exciting is that the effort to develop such a vaccine is proceeding rapidly and could produce results in just a few years — that is, if the United States government and other donors provide the funding necessary for large-scale clinical trials. 

Right now, that’s a very big “if.”

A vineyard near Worcester, on the road to Barrydale

A vineyard near Worcester, on the road to Barrydale

South Africa is a leader in TB vaccine research, and I recently had the opportunity to visit a tuberculosis vaccine facility in Worcester, 120 km northwest of Cape Town, and to take some photos.  The facility has the strong support of the US-based Aeras Global TB Vaccine Foundation, and it is a terrific example of capacity building and international cooperation.

In fact, Aeras is supporting this kind of capacity building and healthcare infrastructure strengthening (including laboratories and disease detection) not only in South Africa but at partner sites in Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda, Cambodia and India as well.

The area called the Boland, where facility is located, is one of the most beautiful places I have ever visited.  It is the source of world-class wine as well as those delicious Ceres fruit juices you can find in supermarkets in the US and other countries.

Unfortunately, this rural area also has one of the highest rates of TB in the world.

TB incidence in the research area is about 100 times that which we have in the United States. The level of TB incidence in this area is at 1400 cases per 100,000 people, even higher than the overall South Africa rate of 900 per 100,000.  

This is the view directly oppostite the SATVI research facility.

This is the view directly oppostite the SATVI research facility.

The situation in South Africa is aggravated by unemployment, poor housing conditions (cramped and with inadequate air circulation), extreme inequity in access to medical care, and HIV/AIDS. 

As we explored in Deadly Synergy, TB is having an enormous and deadly impact on people who are living with HIV/AIDS.  Since 2007, HIV and TB co-infection has been the most significant cause of premature death in the province of Western Cape. 

However, it is also worth noting that, globally, most people with TB disease are not HIV positive. 

The woman on the left runs a local saloon, in Gugulethu, where people drink beer made from corn.  TB can spread in such enclosed spaces.

The woman on the left runs a local saloon, in Gugulethu, where people drink beer made from corn. TB can spread in such enclosed spaces.

In fact, in the Western Cape, HIV prevalence is less than the overall rate in South Africa as a whole.  Hassan Mahomed, the SATVI Clinical Director, told us that there are other factors in addition to HIV which are driving the TB problem in the area, which predates the escalation of HIV. 

He told us that the long, cold and rainy winters in the area lead people to staying indoors where they can become infected by TB.  He said poverty and alcoholism were also major factors, with many of the people receiving low wages for seasonal work on the many farms in the area.  

Many people live in cramped quarters, as in this photo from Gugulethu, near Cape Town

Many people live in cramped quarters, as in this photo from Gugulethu, near Cape Town

Children can suffer terrible forms of TB disease, such as TB meningitis, which can lead to severe brain damage and paralysis. 

While children in South Africa receive some protection from the BCG vaccine, developed about 90 years ago, this does not protect them against pulmonary TB and the protection does not last into adulthood.

But research is advancing rapidly.  There are now 10 new TB vaccine candidates in clinical trials worldwide, and four of them are being tested in Worcester, at the field site of the South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative (SATVI).

We happened to arrive at the site on a day when mothers were bringing in their babies to receive an already-proven vaccine against pneumococcal disease.  Children in the TB vaccine study area are provided with other vaccinations free of charge, whether or not their parents choose to enroll them in the study. 

This mother of three had brought her daughter in for the free pneumococcal vaccination.  She said her uncle had suffered from TB.

This mother of three had brought her daughter in for the free pneumococcal vaccination. She said her uncle had suffered from TB.

I asked one of the mothers if the 150 Rand (about $19 USD) payment she receives for each clinic visit was a help to her, and she said yes but the even more important benefit was that as a study participant her baby also receives regular medical check-ups.

On our visit to the site, I got a chance to meet four month old Janenique Pienaar of Worcester.  Her mother was beaming, clearly delighted that her daughter is making history as the first baby in 80 years to be vaccinated in a proof-of-concept efficacy trial (Phase IIb) of a candidate TB vaccine. 

Child receiving his pneumococcal vaccine.

Child receiving his pneumococcal vaccine.

This vaccine candidate, called MVA85A/AERAS-485, would be a booster to the BCG vaccine, and it has already been shown to be safe in a number of Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. 

 To study this vaccine candidate, SATVI is enrolling 2783 healthy, already BCG vaccinated, babies, at about 4 months of age to participate in the trial. Half the babies will be given the new vaccine, and the other half a placebo. 

The children will then be monitored for two years to compare the incidence of TB in the two groups. If successful, the vaccine would proceed to a much larger, and more costly, Phase III clinical trial in 2011. 

A sleepy-eyed baby Janenique, with Dr. Michele Tameris, clinical manager of the South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative

A sleepy-eyed baby Janenique, with Dr. Michele Tameris, clinical manager of the South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative

This vaccine could be ready for wide-scale use by 2016, if the trials are successful.  Unfortunately, funding for later stage clinical trials for TB vaccines is at present very much in doubt, and the funding shortfall could significantly delay progress.

While the NIH and CDC have funded some early stage TB vaccine research and epidemiology studies, funding for the kind of late-stage trials conducted in South Africa is authorized under the PEPFAR law (Lantos-Hyde) to come through USAID. 

USAID is already investing significantly in AIDS and malaria vaccine research, but unfortunately it has not provided funding for TB vaccine research, whether through Aeras or another program.

The Obama Administration supported a tiny increase of only $10 million for USAID’s TB program in 2010.  Congress is now on course to provide a larger increase for 2010, but it will be roughly a $150 million increase at best — far less than the increase of about $500 million we and other advocates had sought for implementation of TB programs and research.  

The Aeras Global TB Vaccine Foundation needs over $30 million per year in additional funding to support a late stage clinical trial of a TB vaccine candidate.

Proud mom, with baby Janenique, the first baby to receive the candidate vaccine in this trial

Proud mom, with baby Janenique, the first baby to receive the candidate vaccine in this trial

We hope that the Administration proposes a substantial increase for TB in its 2011 budget proposal, yet the signs so far are not good. 

TB is not just any disease.  It’s the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality combined in women of reproductive age in developing countries. India’s national TB program estimates that some 100,000 women in India alone are rejected by their families every year because of TB.

Yet, the Administration’s draft, 6-year strategy on TB omits any reference to the TB funding levels “authorized” last year in the Lantos-Hyde bill, now US law. 

That bill specified $4 billion over 5 years for TB, or $800 million per year, including for vaccine development.  But, to become a reality, this funding level needs annual support from Administration and from the Budget Chairmen and Appropriators in Congress. 

What we have heard from government insiders is that the Administration feels the amount of TB funding now provided through PEPFAR, which directs some of its funding to addressing TB-HIV coinfection, in effect addresses the TB funding need.  Would that were the case!

President Obama just awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu.  He, like Nelson Mandela, is a TB survivor, and both have called for bold action to confront TB.  Tutu has appealed for funding for TB and HIV programs, even in these difficult times.

South African Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu

South African Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu

We must heed their call to action. TB is estimated to deplete the incomes of the world’s poorest communities by $12 billion per year. South Africa has made progress in the fight against TB, but there is still much to do.  As Tutu has stated, “As we have overcome apartheid, so we shall defeat TB and HIV/AIDS, these ungodly twin killers.”

— David Bryden, Senior Program Policy Officer, Center for Global Health Policy 

The floor of the District Six Museum in Cape Town has this quote from Langston Hughes

The floor of the District Six Museum in Cape Town has this quote from Langston Hughes

 

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